The National Institute for Restorative Justice
"Educating for Advocacy"
Core Legal Justice Concerns
1464 East 105 Street
Cleveland, Ohio 44106
“…I do not believe that the meaning of the Constitution was forever
"fixed" at the Philadelphia Convention. Nor do I find the wisdom, foresight,
and sense of justice exhibited by the Framers particularly profound.
To the contrary, the government they devised was defective from the start,
requiring several amendments, a civil war, and momentous social transformation
to attain the system of constitutional government, and its respect for the
individual freedoms and human rights, we hold as fundamental today.”

Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall
Except As Punishment For Crime

The Thirteenth &
Amendments and
the Criminalization of
Black America
A Sesquicentennial Dialogue Series
Beginning December 18, 2015
Cleveland, Ohio
The National Institute for Restorative Justice
"Educating for Advocacy"
Food For Thought
Back To Core Concerns
or Forward To:
Racializing Justice,
Diseinfranchising Lives:
The Racism, Criminal
Justice and Law Reader
Racial Profiling:
Causes & Consequences
by Ronnie A. Dunn
& Wormie Reed

Social Justice

Economic Justice

Legal Justice
Join The
Drum Majors
For Justice!
On December 18, 1865 United States
Secretary of State William H. Steward
signed the
Thirteenth Amendment to
the Constitution into law.  
amendment was intended to
slavery and involuntary servitude in
these United States,
"except as
punishment for crime

On December 19, 1865 the
discriminatory incarceration began,
and free labor continued.
Following suit, on July 9, 1868 the
United States adopted the second of the  
"Reconstruction Amendments," the
Fourteenth, in which another clause
attached to crime denies a citizen's
right to vote

150 years later, the United States
population of prisoners laboring at
little or no income to benefit corporate
is nearly equal to the United
States "slave" population
at the time of
President Abraham Lincoln's
executive order of Emancipation.
The estimated
number of citizens
denied the right to vote
as a
consequence of a felony conviction
nearly triples the 1862 enslaved

It is time for the United States
of America to live up to its
of the land of the free and
home of the brave, and rid itself of
Constitutional clauses that provide
for slavery and voter disenfranchisement.
Check with your local libraries for copies of these critical documentaries
Renewing Inalienable Rights, Rebuilding Communal Confidence, Re-energizing Sustainable Economy, Reviving Unbridled Spirit
Site Map
Trayvon Martin, 17
February 26, 2012
by self-proclaim law enforcer,  
George Zimmerman
in Sanford, Florida
Kendrick McDade, 19
March 24, 2012
by two unnamed police
in Pasadena, California
Rekia Boyd, 22
March 21, 2012
by policeman Dante Servin
in Chicago, Illinois
Ramarly Graham, 18
February 3, 2012
by policeman Richard Haste
in Brooklyn, NY,
in front of his grandmother and
six year old brother
Akai Gurley, 28
November 20, 2014
by policeman Peter Liang
while walking with his
girlfriend in a Brooklyn,
New York
apartment complex.
Amadou Diallo, 23
February 4, 1999
by NYPD plainclothsmen Sean
Carroll, Richard Murphy, Edward
McMillon and Kenneth Boss, in
front of his home in the Bronx.
Tanisha Anderson, 37
November 13, 2014
in "take down" custody
of Cleveland, Ohio
police, in front of her
home with her mother,
brother and daughter
looking on.
Tamir Rice, 12
November 22, 2014
by policeman Timothy
Loehman in front of his
sister, while playing
with a toy gun outside a
Cleveland, Ohio
recreation center.
A striking resemblance
to Emmett Till, below.
Darrien Hunt, 22
September 10, 2014
chased down and shot in
the back by Saratoga
Springs, Utah policemen
Matthew Schauerhamer
and Nicolas Judson, for
walking along a shopping
strip with a souvenir
Katana round edge sword
Kajieme Powell, 25
August 19, 2014
by un-named St. Louis,
Missouri police over a can
of pop, less than two
weeks and five miles away
from Michael Brown
The One's That Made The News - Most Unarmed - Some Mentally Unstable
Ezell Ford, 25
August 11, 2014
by Sharlton Wampler
and Antonio Villegas
in Los Angeles,
Michael Brown, 18
August 9, 2014
by Ferguson policeman
Darren Wilson while
witness say surrendering
with his hands up.
John Crawford, 22
August 5, 2014
by Beaver Creek, Ohio
policemen Dave
Darrow and Sean
Williams while holding
an air riffle at Walmart
Eric Garner, 43
July 17, 2014
choked to death by
Staten Island, New York
policeman Daniel Portaleo
for selling single cigarettes
Timothy Russell, 43
Malissa Williams, 30
November 29, 2012
chased down by 60 police
cars for over 20 miles, then
shot at 137 times until dead
in a middle school yard in
East Cleveland, Ohio
Sean Bell,
November 25, 2006
by 5 NYPD undercover agents
unloading 50 bullets, on the
morning of his wedding in
Queens, New York.
James Chaney
June 21 - 22, 1964
along with Andrew
Goodman and Mickey
Schwerner, by  
Mississippi White
Knights of the Klu Klux
Klan, including
members of the  
Neshoba County
Sherriff's Office and
Philadelphia, MS
Police Dept.
dis-membered in Money,
Mississippi by Roy Bryant and J.
W. Millam after allegedly winking
or whistling at Bryant's wife.
Till, 14
August 28,
the Chicago
youth pulled
beaten and