Collective Courage!
A History of African American Cooperative Economic Thought and Practice
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The National Institute for Restorative Justice
"Educating for Advocacy"
Collective Courage Book Discussion Series  
1464 East 105 Street
Cleveland, Ohio 44106

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“No race can be said to be another’s equal that can not or will not protect its own interest.  
This new order can be brought about once the Negro acknowledges the wisdom
in uniting his forces and pooling his funds for the common good of all.
Other races have gained great wealth and great power by following
this simple rule and it is hoped someday that the Negro will do the same..”
Halena Willson
President, Ladies Auxiliary to the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
In Collective Courage, Dr. Jessica Gordon Nembhard chronicles African American cooperative business ownership and its place in the
movements for Black civil rights and economic equality. Not since W. E. B. Du Bois's 1907
Economic Co-operation Among Negro
has there been a full-length, nationwide study of African American cooperatives. Collective Courage extends that story into the
twenty-first century. Many of the players are well known in the history of the African American experience: Du Bois, A. Philip Randolph
and the Ladies' Auxiliary to the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, Nannie Helen Burroughs, Fannie Lou Hamer, Ella Jo Baker, George
Schuyler and the Young Negroes' Co-operative League, the Nation of Islam, and the Black Panther Party. Adding the cooperative
movement to Black history results in a retelling of the African American experience, with an increased understanding of African American
collective economic agency and grassroots economic organizing.

To tell the story, Gordon Nembhard uses a variety of newspapers, period magazines, and journals; co-ops' articles of incorporation,
minutes from annual meetings, newsletters, budgets, and income statements; and scholarly books, memoirs, and biographies. These
sources reveal the achievements and challenges of Black co-ops, collective economic action, and social entrepreneurship. Gordon
Nembhard finds that African Americans, as well as other people of color and low-income people, have benefitted greatly from cooperative
ownership and democratic economic participation throughout the nation's history.

Jessica Gordon Nembhard is Professor of Community Justice and Social Economic Development in the Department of Africana Studies at
John Jay College, City University of New York.
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Dr. Jessica Gordon
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2012 Community
Critical 21st Century Conversations
About Independent Economies in
Black History

Tuesdays & Thursdays
March 3 - April 2, 2015
6:00 - 8:00 PM

Discussion & Book Signing With
Dr. Jessica Gordon Nembhard, PhD
Saturday, February 28, 2015 ~ 2 -4 p.m.
Discussion Schedule, Guides and Syllabus
Saturday, February 28, 2015 2p.m.
Introduction: A Continuous and
Hidden History of Economic
Defense and Collective Well-Being

Dr. Jessica Gordon Nembhard, PhD
Professor, Dept of African American
Studies, John Jay College
City University of New York
BA Yale University
M.A.T. Howard University
MA, PhD  U of Massachusetts, Amherst
Thursday, March 12, 2015 6p.m.
Chapter 4:
Strtegy, Advocacy and Practice:
Black Study Circles and Cooperative
Education on the Front Lines

Dr. Pam Brooks, PhD
Chair, Department of Africana Studies
Oberlin College
BA New York University
MA Univ Massachusetts Amherst
PhD Northeastern University
Tuesday, March 3, 2015 6p.m.
Chapter 1:
Early Black Economic Cooperation:
Intentional Communities,
Communes & Mutual Aid

Rev. Mittie Imani Jordan, Chair
The National Institute
For Restorative Justice

BA Smith College
Thursday, March 5, 2015 6p.m.
Chapter 2:
From Economic Independence
To Political Advocacy: Cooperation
and the Nineteenth-Century
Populist Movement

Guide: TBA
Tuesday, March 10, 2015 6p.m.
Chapter 3:
Expanding the Tradition: Early
African American-Owned
Cooperative Businesses

Ms. Genevieve Mitchell
Executive Secretary, NIRJ
President, The Black Women's Center
Certificate, Harvard University
JFK School of Government
Urban Issues -Public Policy Institute
Tuesday, March 17, 2015 6p.m.
Chapter 5:
The Young Negroes'
Cooperative League

Ms. Alicia N. Graves, JD
Attorney at Law
Vice Chair for Business & Finance, NIRJ
BA Case Western Reserve University
JD  University of Akron School of Law
Thursday, March 19 6p.m.
Chapter 6:
Out of Necessity: The Great Depression
and Consumers Cooperation
Among Negroes

Dr. Clovis White, PhD
Associate Professor, Oberlin College
Department of Sociology
BA Univ of Massachusetts, Dartmouth
MA State Univ of New York, Albany
PhD Indiana University
Tuesday, March 24, 2015  6p.m.
Chapter 7:
Continuing the Legacy:
Nannie Helen Burroughs,
Halena Wilson, and the
Role of Black Women

Dr. Ruth Ryida Reese, PhD
BA Smith College
MA Cleveland State University
PhD University of North Carolina
Thursday, March 26, 2015 6p.m
Chapter 8:
Black Rural Cooperative Activity
in the Early to Mid-Twentieth Century

Ms. Lena Boswell
Director, Nguzo Saba Gardens
Manager, Key of Life Farm
Garden Leader, Nia Community Garden
Instructor, Roots of Success
Environmental Literacy
Vocalist, Visual and Culinary Artist
Tuesday, March 21, 2015 6p.m.
Chapter 9:
The Federation of Southern
Cooperatives:  The Legacy Lives On

Dr. Gillian Johns, PhD
Associate Professor, Oberlin College
Department of English
BA Slippery Rock University
MA PhD Temple University
Tuesday, April 2,2015 6p.m.
Chapter 10:
Economic Solidarity in the
African American Cooperative
Movement: Connections, Cohesiveness
and Leadership Development

Reverend Dr. Zachery Williams, PhD
Vice Chair and Faculty Advisor, NIRJ
Associate Professor, Dept of History
The University of Akron
BA Clemson University
PhD Bowling Green State University
The Discussion Series is free and open
to the public.  Registration is required.

Books may be purchased at a 35%
discounted price during the
February 28, 2015
Discussion and Book Signing with
Dr. Gordon Nembhard  

Please reserve your copy through
the registration form (right)
or by email at rjusticeinc@aol.com  

Hardback $51.95
(Limited #   Retails at $79.95)

Paperback $25.96
(Retails at $39.95)